Principles of Teaching

EFFECTIVE TEACHING

This module is very helpful to all educators, especially to the future educators like me, who doesn’t have any experience in actual teaching practice.

I’ve learned in this module that aside from the knowledge content and pedagogy in teaching, it also important that teachers are prepared and equipped to work with diverse learners. As educators it is important that we appreciate and accommodate our students’ differences and similarities. This would help us in understanding our students and we can create a better activities and teaching strategies. This would also give all students more opportunities to learn and gain more knowledge. Culturally Responsive Teaching is a pedagogy that recognizes the importance of including students’ cultural references in all aspects of learning (Ladson-Billings,1994). The Education Alliance of Brown University listed some of the characteristics of culturally responsive teaching:

  1. Positive perspectives on parents and families

  2. Communication of high expectations

  3. Learning within the context of culture

  4. Student-centered instruction

  5. Culturally mediated instruction

  6. Reshaping the curriculum

  7. Teacher as facilitator

I have also learned in this module, how creativity can help on effective teaching. Creativity in teaching is the ability to think outside the box and imaginative in creating or improving classroom activities. Creative teachers doesn’t just stick on what is traditional but they try to improve it to make learning interesting and fun. Creativity helps students in strengthening their skills and knowledge that would help them to be a well-rounded and it would prepare them in the life beyond their classroom. According to Kristin Hicks (2015), here are some ways to bring more creativity in the classroom:

1. Don’t limit assignments to one format

2. Set time aside for creativity

3. Use tech to broaden your idea of assignments

4. Introduce unconventional learning materials into class

5. Encourage discussion.

I think the most important lesson that I have learned in this module is that being a teacher is a continuous learning. It is important that as an educator we improve and evolve to be able to catch up with the fast changing generation. We need to adjust to be an effective teacher to all types of students.

 

References:

Hicks, K. (2015, March 17). Why Creativity in the Classroom Matters More Than Ever. Retrieve from http://www.edudemic.com/creativity-in-the-classroom/

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishing Co.

The Education Alliance of Brown University. Retrieve from https://www.brown.edu/academics/education-alliance/teaching-diverse-learners/strategies-0/culturally-responsive-teaching-0#ladson-billings

image from:

http://www.teachhub.com/effective-teaching-strategies

NEVER STOP LEARNING

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I always believe that learning is a life-long process. We don’t stop learning and educating ourselves because we have a college degree or because we think that we are the most intelligent person in the world. In this module, it gave me more reasons to believe that continuous learning and development can help you in achieving your goals and improving yourself.

People who doesn’t stop learning continues to search for new and better ways. They are not scared to discover new things and fail because this all part of the learning process. I think it is important that we teach our students that learning is not just limited in books and in schools. Learning can happen anywhere and anytime. We can learn from our experiences and our mistakes and we should not be afraid in new learning opportunities.

In this module, I have also learned the importance of continuing professional development (CPD) for the improvement of our skills and knowledge. I think that CPD is not only for teachers but this is also very helpful to other professionals in various fields. It is important that we continue to develop our professional skills to stay competent, competitive and reliable to our job. This would also help us be up to date in the development of technology, knowledge and skills. We need to remember that development is an ongoing process throughout our professional career.

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Image source:
http://www.visualscribing.com/project/never-stop-learning-2/
http://robertjohnmeehan.blogspot.com/

KNOWLEDGE AND TEACHING

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I always thought that being a teacher is easy and I also thought that they are very lucky because they still have summer breaks and Christmas breaks. Yes, I was very shallow but it changed when I hear on hand experiences of my friends who are teachers and when I started teaching English online. I realize being a teacher was not a very easy profession.

In this module, I have learned more about the complexity of being a teacher. A degree, license and mastery in a certain subject will not guarantee that you will be an effective teacher. There are other aspects you need to learn and experience to be an effective teacher. I remember when I was in college, I have math teacher who was very intelligent and knowledgeable on the subject. He majored mathematics in college and graduated Magna Cum luade but it was his was his first year in teaching and we find his lessons difficult. During that time, we felt that he was explaining it as if we were at his level of mastery in the subject.

After studying this module, I realize maybe at that time he really did not know how to teach us or since it was his first year in teaching he doesn’t know yet how to adjust his teaching methods. This a proof that no matter how knowledgeable you are on the subject it will not guarantee that you will be an effective teacher. Effective learning requires more than just set of knowledge. While teacher knowledge is certainly a component of teacher professionalism, professional competence involves more than just knowledge. Skills, attitudes, and motivational variables also contribute to the mastery of teaching and learning (OECD).

I also learned in this module, how technology can be integrated in learning and teaching. Since, we are in the generation were advanced technology is very accessible I think it is the time that we fully embraced it in the field of education. I know there a lot of apprehension on integrating technology in education because if it is not managed correctly it can be destructive to students. Teaching and learning with technology could be very complicated but with the help of TPACK framework, teachers can continue to develop and improve their teaching strategy to help students learn.

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Reference:

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Retrieved from: https://people.ucsc.edu/~ktellez/shulman.pdf

Anderson, M. (2013, May 28). Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge. Retrieved from: https://ictevangelist.com/technological-pedagogical-and-content-knowledge/

OECD. Teachers’ Pedagogical Knowledge and the Teaching Profession. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/Background_document_to_Symposium_ITEL-FINAL.pdf

 

Teachers in the Philippines

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If you ask me before studying this module, if teachers are professional? I would say yes. I thought that to be a professional teacher you just need to finish a degree in education and then pass the licensure exams for teachers. That is how I perceive teacher professionalism before this module. This module made me realize that it takes more than just a degree and license to be a professional teacher.

I also have different definition of professionalism before studying this module. I thought that professionalism is based on appearance, interaction to other people or educational attainment. We all have preconceive notion of what and how professionals should do and act. In the module, professionalism has been defined in many ways. According to Forsyth and Danisiewicx (1985), the task of professionals is important, exclusive and complex, so professionals should have the autonomous decision-making power free from external pressures. According to David Carr, there are five criteria of professionalism. They are:(a) professions provide an important public service, (b) they involve a theoretically as well as practically grounded expertise, (c) they have a distinct ethical dimension which calls for expression in a code of practice, (d) they require organization and regulation for purposes of recruitment and discipline and, (e) professional practitioners require a high degree of individual autonomy- independence of judgment for effective practice.

I always believe that teachers here in the Philippines are professionals but if we based this on the given definition they are far from being professional. The education system here in the Philippines is manage and regulated by the different sectors of the government. They are in charge in creating the curriculum and the teaching materials to be used. Aside from these, there are times that teachers are not treated as professionals because they are not paid as much as other professionals. According to an article by Rappler, Philippine Military Academy cadets and call center agents get higher monthly salaries than a public-school teacher: PMA cadet gets P21,709 per month and call center agents gets to take home – P15,000 to P25,000 per month. These is why a lot teachers are in debt or they choose to work abroad or they seek employment from other fields to cope with the salary gap. These are just some of the factors that hinder teachers to be called professionals.

As a future educator, I am hoping that there would be changes on our education system. Good thing that there are a lot of legislators who are taking a step to increase teachers’ salary and benefits. Hopefully, teachers will also be given a bigger role in education and not just a conveyor of information and knowledge to students. These would help in improving teachers’ skills and competence and this will also help in their professional and teaching development.

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REFERENCES:

Geronimo, J.Y. (2014, August 16). INFOGRAPHIC: How much are public school teachers getting? Rappler RSS. Retrieve from http://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/61149-how-much-public-school-teachers-take-home-pay

Forsyth, P. B., Danisiewicz, T. J. (1985). Toward a theory of    professionalization. Work and Occupations, 121 (1), 59-76.

David, C. (2000). Professionalism and Ethics in Teaching. London: Taylor&Francis Books Ltd.

image from:

https://www.adb.org/results/teach-philippines-teach-development

http://www.rd.com/culture/teaching-quotes/

Reflective Teaching Practice

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My definition of reflection before studying this module focuses more on the person doing the reflection. I thought that it was more on knowing and improving yourself. I did not really realize that aside from helping yourself it could also create a big difference to others. According to Scales, reflection is the key to successful learning for teachers and for learners. Reflection enables teachers to evaluate their practice and identify the things that he/she needs to improve or change. Another reason for reflective practice is that it encourages teachers to understand their learners and their needs and abilities (Scales, 2008).

A reflective practice can be done by creating a journal or blog or you can create Professional Development Journal (PDJ), were you can record your experiences and feelings about the preparation and delivering of teaching and learning (Scales, 2008). The PDJ can help teachers be updated to their learning. It can also help teachers in keeping progress on their professional development.

This module also emphasizes the importance and advantages of critically reflective teacher. According to Brookfield, Critical reflection is crucial for teachers’ survival. Hence, it is important to incorporate reflection in their teaching practice to avoid demoralization and self-laceration. Based on experience, this is very common to new teachers. They tend to blame themselves if students are failing or if they receive low scores on students’ evaluation. They would automatically think that their teaching method is lacking and it could result to depression. That is why it is important that the teacher creates a reflective journal to avoid this negativity and just focus on the positive things.

After studying this module, it made me realize how important reflective practice to a teacher. It helps teacher to understand themselves more and create a strategy that could help in developing his/her career as an educator. It is also a big help to the learners because the teachers can create a better teaching method that could help in developing their learning. It is also important that the as educators we are open-minded and ready to embrace the changes not just for our students but most especially to ourselves.

References:

Scales, P. (2008). The reflective teacher. Teaching in the learning sector, 7 – 26. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.

Brookfield, S. D. (1995). What it means to be a critically reflective teacher (Chap. 1). Becoming a critically reflective teacher (pp. 1-27). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Brookfield, S. D. (1995). Becoming critically reflective (Chap. 2). Becoming a critically reflective teacher (pp. 28-48). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

http://tccl.rit.albany.edu/knilt/index.php/Unit_1:_What_is_Reflective_Teaching%3F